Final piece of type 1 diabetes puzzle solved – BBC

1 Comment » April 24th, 2016 posted by // Categories: Health



 

 

QUOTE

There are two main types of diabetes –

  • Type 1 – where the pancreas does not produce any insulin
  • Type 2 – where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin – or the body’s cells do not react to insulin

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood.

Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it is the most common type of childhood diabetes, so it is sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is largely caused by poor lifestyle. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop later in life than type 1.

UNQUOTE

QUOTE

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the beta cells that make insulin – the hormone needed to keep blood sugar levels under control.

UNQUOTE

 

http://www.bbc.com/news/health-36113773

BBC

Final piece of type 1 diabetes puzzle solved

By James GallagherHealth editor, BBC News website
  • 9 hours ago
  • From the sectionHealth
Woman having insulin injectionImage copyrightSPL

A complete picture of the areas that the immune system attacks to cause type 1 diabetes has finally been revealed by scientists.

The study, published in the journal Diabetes, discovered the fifth and final critical target at which the immune system errantly takes aim.

The team at the University of Lincoln say the findings could help develop new ways to prevent and treat the disease.

Diabetes UK said the findings were “impressive”.

In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys the beta cells that make insulin – the hormone needed to keep blood sugar levels under control.

Studies looking at the unique antibodies made by patients with type 1 showed there were five key targets that the immune system attacked.

But working out exactly what they were has been like identifying someone from their silhouette.

Studies long ago discovered some of the targets, but the final one has proved elusive for two decades.

Dr Michael Christie, who led the research at the University of Lincoln, told the BBC: “With this new discovery, we have now finished identifying what the immune system is targeting – we have the complete picture.”

The targets are:

  • Insulin
  • Glutamate decarboxylase
  • IA-2
  • Zinc transporter-8
  • And the final piece of the puzzle, tetraspanin-7

The more technically named ones are largely involved in secreting or storing the hormone insulin.

Knowledge of some of these targets is already being used in a trial at King’s College London that is aiming to stall the progression of type 1.

But Dr Christie says having the complete picture could help transform care for type 1 patients.

He said: “Once the immune system decides it wants to get rid of something it’s very hard to stop, so diabetes has proved to be a difficult disease to prevent.

“So we’re hoping that, by having identified the major targets in the disease, we can find ways to prevent it by blocking the immune response to these five proteins without leaving that person vulnerable to infections.

“With recent improvements in our understanding of the disease I’m very hopeful we’ll develop a treatment now; I have a lot more confidence than even five years ago.”


Diabetes

There are two main types of diabetes –

  • Type 1 – where the pancreas does not produce any insulin
  • Type 2 – where the pancreas does not produce enough insulin – or the body’s cells do not react to insulin

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but usually appears before the age of 40, particularly in childhood.

Around 10% of all diabetes is type 1, but it is the most common type of childhood diabetes, so it is sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is largely caused by poor lifestyle. Around 90% of adults with diabetes have type 2, and it tends to develop later in life than type 1.

Source: NHS Choices


Dr Emily Burns, from the charity Diabetes UK, said: “In order to prevent type 1 diabetes, we need to fully understand how the immune response that damages insulin-producing cells develops in the first place.

“Dr Christie’s impressive research is helping us to do just that.

“We hope that the findings here will be used to improve the identification of those at risk of type 1 diabetes and, in the long term, inform the crucial development of therapies.”


 

http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/type-1-diabetes/what-insulin

 

What is Insulin?

Important hormone allows your body to use sugar (glucose)

Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).

The cells in your body need sugar for energy. However, sugar cannot go into most of your cells directly. After you eat food and your blood sugar level rises, cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. Insulin then attaches to and signals cells to absorb sugar from the bloodstream. Insulin is often described as a “key,” which unlocks the cell to allow sugar to enter the cell and be used for energy.

After you eat, cells in your pancreas are signaled to release insulin into the bloodstream.

If you have more sugar in your body than it needs, insulin helps store the sugar in your liver and releases it when your blood sugar level is low or if you need more sugar, such as in between meals or during physical activity. Therefore, insulin helps balance out blood sugar levels and keeps them in a normal range. As blood sugar levels rise, the pancreas secretes more insulin.

 

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If your body does not produce enough insulin or your cells are resistant to the effects of insulin, you may develop hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), which can cause long-term complications if the blood sugar levels stay elevated for long periods of time.

Insulin Treatment for Diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes cannot make insulin because the beta cells in their pancreas are damaged or destroyed. Therefore, these people will need insulin injections to allow their body to process glucose and avoid complications from hyperglycemia.

People with type 2 diabetes do not respond well or are resistant to insulin. They may need insulin shots to help them better process sugar and to prevent long-term complications from this disease. Persons with type 2 diabetes may first be treated with oral medications, along with diet and exercise. Since type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, the longer someone has it, the more likely they will require insulin to maintain blood sugar levels.

Various types of insulin are used to treat diabetes and include:

  • Rapid-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 15 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 1 hour but continues to work for two to four hours. This is usually taken before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
  • Short-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 30 minutes after injection and peaks at approximately 2 to 3 hours but will continue to work for three to six hours. It is usually given before a meal and in addition to a long-acting insulin.
  • Intermediate-acting insulin: It starts working approximately 2 to 4 hours after injection and peaks approximately 4 to 12 hours later and continues to work for 12-18 hours. It is usually taken twice a day and in addition to a rapid- or short-acting insulin.
  • Long-acting insulin: It starts working after several hours after injection and works for approximately 24 hours. If necessary, it is often used in combination with rapid- or short-acting insulin.

Insulin can be given by a syringe, injection pen, or an insulin pump that delivers a continuous flow of insulin.

Your doctor will work with you to figure out which type of insulin is best for you depending on whether you have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, your blood sugar levels,and your lifestyle.

Updated on: 04/06/16

Continue Reading
Patient Guide to Insulin: About Diabetes
View Sources

Sources
American Diabetes Association. Living with Diabetes: Insulin Basics. June 7, 2013. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/insulin/insulin-basics.html. Accessed April 28, 2014.

Joslin Diabetes Center. Managing Diabetes: What is Insulin Resistance? http://www.joslin.org/info/what_is_insulin_resistance.html. Accessed April 28, 2014.

Joslin Diabetes Center. Managing Diabetes: Insulin A to Z: A Guide on Different Types of Insulin.
http://www.joslin.org/info/insulin_a_to_z_a_guide_on_different_types_of_insulin.html.
Accessed April 28, 2014.

Mayo Clinic. Diabetes treatment: Using insulin to manage blood sugar. August 7, 2013. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/in-depth/diabetes-treatment/art-20044084. Accessed April 28, 2014.

 

 

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One Response to “Final piece of type 1 diabetes puzzle solved – BBC”

  1. lynda says:

    Can we PLEASE stop perpetuating the myth that T2 is mainly caused by an unhealthy lifestyle??? More and more research is showing that there are a number of genetic components involved in T2. “your genes load the gun, your lifestyle pulls the trigger”.

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