Small Hydro Power Project Information NIGERIA

No Comments » November 28th, 2007 posted by // Categories: Energy Development Project


International Small-Hydro Atlas

Nigeria IEA member No.   

Country Brief

Nigeria, in western Africa, has an total area of 923 800 km2. The country’s estimated 1999 population equaled 113 million. The capital city is Abuja, while other important urban centres include Lagos, the commerical capital, Ibadan, Kano, Ogbomosho, Abeokuta, Ilorin and Port Harcourt. The official language is English, while Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, and many others spoken throughout the country. The local currency is the Naira. The international time zone is GMT +1 and the international dialing code is +234.

Nigeria is rich in oil reserves. The oil sector provides 30% of the country’s GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary revenues. The country is blessed with abundant hydroelectric power resources. Nigeria’s power demand is high but the actual generation is well below the demand. As a result, the country experiences an energy supply crisis. It has been argued that the solution to this crisis, in the short and long term, is further development of the country’s small-hydro programme.

Water resources

Nigeria’s average annual precipitation is approximately 1080 mm, resulting in total mean annual precipitation volume of approximately 998 km3, of which the total runoff is estimated to be 230 km3. The country’s per capita domestic water consumption is 30 litres/day, approximately 11 m3/year.

Nigeria’s rivers are characterized by high water discharges during the rainy season and very low discharges during the dry season. The River Niger is an exception, with a more reliable and stable flow. The River Niger is regulated by the Kainji reservoir. There are 63 large dams in operation throughout the country.

The national authority responsible for water resources is the Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development. There are also 12 river basin development authorities or state water boards/corporations/utilities responsible for the country’s 30 states and the capital, Abuja.

Energy and power sectors

1997 estimates of the Nigeria’s total electrical consumption equaled 12625 GWh, of which 41%, 5250 GWh, came from hydroelectric power. The country’s total installed capacity in 1997 equaled 5881 MW, of which 2341 MW was installed in hydroelectric projects. Petroleum and gas, coal and lignite, biomass and solar power account for the remaining energy sources.

The National Electric power Authority, NEPA, is responsible for electricity production and supply in Nigeria.

The country has proven gas reserves and around 8 000 MW of hydro development is planned. Nigeria has plans to increase access to electricity throughout the country to 85% by 2010. This ambitious effort would require 16 new power plants, approximately 15 000km of transmission lines, as well as distribution facilities.

Nigeria exports electricity to neighbouring Niger. A 950 MW Zungeru hydro facility on the river Kaduna was commissioned in 1994. Nigeria suffers from regular power failures and several large thermally fired plants are scheduled for retrofitting. The World Bank agreed in principle in 1998 to finance a project to renovate the old 21 MW diesel power station near Port Harcourt. Additional funding is likely to be provided by NEPA.

The Nigerian government is in the process of privatising existing facilities.

Hydropower development

In 1980, Nigeria’s technically feasible hydropower potential was evaluated at 30690 GWh/year. As stated, hydroelectric power stations generated 5250 GWh in 1997. The first phase of the Kainji Hydroelectricity project, comprised of 4×80 MW units, was commissioned in 1968. The 2nd phase of the Kainji project was completed in 1978, adding 2×120 MW units. By 1980 the 3rd phase had been completed adding an 2×100 MW units. The Jebba and Shiroro hydroelectric projects add an installed capacity of 578 MW and 600 MW respectively to the country’s total capacity. An additional 1210 MW of hydroelectric installed capacity at the Zungeru and Katsina-Ala stations was scheduled to come on-line before the year 2000.

There are 41 small hydroelectric stations in operation, with a total capacity of 32 MW. Small hydro is defined as less than 5 MW installed capacity. Nigeria has reviewed the development of a programme of small hydro construction that will result in 702 MW of installed capacity at 236 sites and 400 MW from mini hydro plants. A detailed examination of the country’s hydropower potential was commissioned by the NEPA, the implementation programme of Power System Development Plan was based on the recommendation of the reports of this examination. The inventory of potential sites was completed the power output for each site was calculated using firm flow and average head. This study revealed approximately 32 sites with potential for hydropower development, 15 of which are classified as possible small-hydroelectric stations.



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