Ajaokuta Steel Project And Nigeria's Industrialisation Process

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Ajaokuta Steel Project And Nigeria’s Industrialisation

Daily Trust

November 12, 2003

Prince Haruna Al-Rashid Yusuf

Ajaokuta is in the news once again! The steel complex
located there has turned out to have the longest gestation period among public
sector industrial projects in Nigeria. There are confused signals surrounding
the “concession agreement” signed between the federal government of Nigeria/Ajaokuta
Steel Company Limited (FGN/ASCL) and an American company (SOLGAS ENERGY LTD).

A sigh of relief came in the wake of the news that ASCL
will resume production soon and the joyous mood was overwhelming at some
quarters. The worrisome and salient question is ‘does the American company have
the expertise and experience to execute all it has claimed?’ From all available
information the answer is unfortunately NO. The chairman of the company, Thomas
Russell, started trading with Nigeria since 1992 as an oil merchant. The
Nigerian subsidiary of his company, according to one Mr. Segun Oyefeso was
registered in 2001 – to carry on the business of importation of electric
generating sets. Today the total annual turnover of Solgas Energy Ltd. is $
60million. This represents the modest financial profile of the American company.
The company has no stint in steel business from any part of the world. Yet, the
presidency has defended SOLGAS as a “financier” who is willing to bring into the
country the whooping sum of $3.6 billion – to invest in our steel sector, but
has failed to educate us what percentage of the total FGN investment is such
capital outlay. Secondly, is it the right type of investment to salvage our
steel industry? And very importantly, has SOLGAS got the financial clout to
inject such foreign capital from the western financial world into the Nigerian
economy? Where is the proof? On the surface of it, there is no clear evidence to
substantiate the above claim by SOLGAS. Our recent experience in which NITEL
privatisation crashed is still fresh in our memory. As the core investor,
Investment International (London) Limited, IILL, was instructed by the Bureau of
Public Enterprises (BPE) to effect the payment to the tune of $131.7million in
favour of FGN; being 51 percent of NITEL capitalisation. The so-called foreign
investor failed woefully to redeem its pledge at the end of the day… In
summary, our entire approach to the privatisation scheme is “shrouded in secrecy
and frauds incorporated” and it is very frightening. We will not get that
$3.6billion from SOLGAS. Our current effort is a dismal failure and a national
disaster. We can sit up again to re-strategise Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
flow into the country.

World politics on steel

Ordinarily, one should not have bothered oneself about it.
But as soon as you look beneath the skin of SOLGAS saga, one observes quite
different type of images emerging. It is the immediate cause of the refraction,
which in reality accounted for the grand conspiracy “hatched” between the United
States, Britain and Obasanjo’s administration to scuttle the Ajaokuta Steel
Project – to truncate the entire steel dream of Nigeria, which President Shagari
nurtured – knowing full well that without steel technology, we can never, ever,
become industrialised. Yes, all industrialised nations have functional steel
industry (ies). What is more, if we actually desire a new gas plant for Nigeria,
as being proposed by the president, why must it be sited just on the parcel of
land already earmarked for phases I and II expansion programmes of the
integrated steel plant? Why Ajaokuta of all places in the world? Please, let
SOLGAS find elsewhere to site its power generating plant. ASCL is the brainchild
of NIOMP, Itakpe. What is intended to sprout out there are “iron and steel” and
not “electricity”. There are perhaps other communities within Nigeria that would
gladly welcome a foreign investment of any description but Ajaokuta, most
certainly, will not accept this American (i.e. Greek gift) investment.

Gas power technology

The Sapele Gas powered electricity generating plant in
Delta State is left there moribund for some time now. The question is that why
can’t SOLGAS enter into agreement to rehabilitate, expand and manage this
industry, more so that Sapele is closer to the “flaring gases” of Niger Delta
than Ajaokuta. “Propane gas” is fluid and highly inflammable but steel is more
tangible in material handling. The engineering difficulties associated with
transportation of the gas over long distances, with difficult terrains like we
have around Ajaokuta is better imagined. We should ask ourselves, firstly, how
effective we can cope with “pipe vandalisations” and maintenances thereof in the
country? Can you imagine a situation in which we cannot vouch to deliver
drinking water safely to our homes – I mean without leakages here and there,
then, how does the Nigerian Gas Company (NGC) contemplate handling the hazardous
hydrocarbon gas-pipe lines? What is the evidence of experience of SOLGAS in
similar jobs anywhere in the world let alone in Nigeria? We deserve to know
these answers, to confirm my fears or otherwise that President Obasanjo and his
surrogates have concluded plans to exterminate the entire Ebira race in gas
chamber-like catastrophe – reminiscent of course, how in 1942 Adolph Hitler of
Germany and his cohorts eliminated six million Jews at a concentration camp in
gas chambers explosion. It amuses one quite frankly, that President Obasanjo and
his Oyibo friends are making frantic mistake in history with SOLGAS project to
deceive and tame Anebira with the rest Nigerians looking on helplessly. He
dragged them along the street, veiled their vision in ignorance, innocence and
misery. And the truth must be told that the president is dishonest about ASCL.
He has not asked the host community whether we would prefer a power generating
plant to a steel plant. We desire a “presidency with decent human face”.

Pre-investment period

During the pre-investment years western countries such as
the UK, Belgium, Germany and the United States were invited to prospect for
steel development in Nigeria and of course they doubted its viability. It is
perhaps to the credit of the Russians that they proved themselves less
hypocritical. They prepared the detailed feasibility reports and went ahead to

Investment stage

President Obasanjo had served under the Gowon
administration as the Federal Commissioner of Works and Housing; during which
period he witnessed the interplay of political intrigues -on the siting of the
project at Ajaokuta. Also, he became the second-in-command during the
short-lived General Murtala Mohammed’s administration and thereafter that, he
became the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief after the demise of General
Murtala. He played significant roles in the making and unmaking of the Nigerian
steel projects, during those periods under review. General Obasanjo had an
ardent belief and absolute confidence in the Nigerian engineering practitioners.
So overwhelmed by the “indigenisation policy”, his government flatly turned down
the Russian tactical request for “a turnkey project” for ASCL for a contract
period of four years. Although the decision to adopt a “departmental execution
mode”, verily, was informed by patriotism, it nevertheless was to cause us
serious time and cost overruns of the project, as previously explained in my
write-up entitled: “The plight of Ajaokuta Steel Project”. As we realise later,
the indigenous construction companies, were not ripe enough to handle such
complex civil engineering and infrastructure construction works envisaged in
ASCL and subsequently, the jobs were awarded to Messers Dumez, Fougerolle and
Berger & Bilfingers. This is our original sin! The Russians questioned the
rationale of taking their own designs to unauthorised (third party) persons.
According to a Russian diplomat, Moscow detested this behavior of Nigerian
government not to honour the “patent right” obligation of technology transfer in
international politics. This misunderstanding is still rearing its ugly head.
That is a “penkele mess” for you! It is only in Nigeria you will get a penkele
mess. But what is “penkele mess”? Often times it has got to do with social value
in contract or investment administration …Another useful illustration here is
when our occidental partner lied to us that Delta Steel Company (DSC) “can
substitute for Ajaokuta” but alas, check what is the plight of DSC today. We
have been “perambulating” around one place for close to three decades. TPE will
find its encounter with the Nigerian authorities very strange and frustrating
indeed, for such did not happen to them elsewhere like in China or other
countries where similar steel projects were commissioned and delivered on
schedule. In fact, the concept of “build, operate and transfer”, BOT, which
originated from the former USSR was the investment policy initiative practiced
throughout the Communist/Socialist block. The same corporate strategy was
adopted and applied in the Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) showcased by the
occidental multinational enterprises on the match towards globalisation space
(i.e. international business).

Sources of European power

For your information and record purpose too, three forces
stand out as the pillars of western power coming way front from technological
breakthrough vide the “steel, chemical and energy industries”. If a Third World
country embarks upon any of these (exclusive industries), it is treated with
scorn and antagonism. White dominations or imperialism are gone for ever if per
chance these items become every person’s property. It is the white fear! The
purpose of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, therefore,
is to establish “barrier walls” against external incursion by the Third World
countries thereby maintaining the status quo (of inequality) for as long as
possible. One of their traps is debt burden regime – to frustrate sustainable
development in the developing world. Of course, the steel industry ensures that
machines are manufactured to facilitate further fabrications of other new
machines or spare parts thereof, and these caused the revolutionary developments
that were witnessed in the chemical and agricultural industries as well as in
communication and space research; that subsequently heralded the military and
economic supremacy of the West. Japan is the only country outside of the white
race (i.e. G8) that has demystified this phenomenal victory. And they grudgingly
accepted Japan in their midst. Nigeria has what it takes to repeat the Japanese
feat but is undermined by poor leadership. What an irony!

Sometime in 1989, the World Bank body requested Messers
Hatch Associates of Canada, a major consulting firm to advise the federal
government of Nigeria on how to discontinue with her steel programme. The
adoption of the firm’s 182-page report by Babangida’ s administration led Alhaji
Abubakar Alhaji to declare, at an IMF conference taking place in New York, in
which Alhaji Ado Ibrahim, HRH (the present Ohinoyi of Ebira land) was present,
that “Nigeria has accepted to abandon its steel programme.” Again, Hatch
Associates was introduced to the BPE in 2001 by the Bretton Woods Institution to
administer as “Technical Adviser” to the organization. You will recall that the
World Bank provided the financial and technical assistances for the National
Programme on Privatisation (NPI). Messers Hatch Associates was asked to take a
comprehensive appraisal of all steel projects in Nigeria. Within two weeks of
engagement, the firm had completed its assignment, which included an extensive
survey, test and analysis of all steel plants located at Ajaokuta, Aladja,
Katsina, Oshogbo and Jos. This must be inserted in the Guinness book of records!
On August 31, 2001, Hatch Associates, Ontario-Canada made its “final report for
strategic Assessment of Nigeria steel industry” available to BPE and recommended
on page 86 of 90 the “Option 9: convert ASCL for corex and a power plant” . it
is not totally surprising that the entire steel enterprise in Nigeria was marked
as “not viable again” at the grave risk of Nigeria’s economic health. Sir, what
we have on our hand right away suggests simply that FGN and SOLGAS are executing
the World Bank’s script.

Policy inconsistency has been identified as the major
obstacle responsible for our stunted growth in the major industries in Nigeria
and known to have stifled initiatives capable of reinvigorating the sectoral
reform. So, the clamour for policy reversal at this stage of development in the
iron and steel sector will be a major disservice to the country.

The Asian escape

In 1976, at the instance of the World Bank report on steel
development in India, South and North Korea (ROK), the institution purportedly
complained that the steel industry there was not viable and advised the projects
to be discontinued. The Asians did not listen to the advice but today, the
“Asian countries or the tigers group” are net exporters of steel products such
as automobiles, refrigerators and home appliances. Both countries now can build
submarine ships and can venture into space programme to boost their military
capabilities. North Korea is intensifying effort in that region to reinforce her
military might vide nuclear sciences; all these are possible because there is
steel industry to actualise their dreams. So, STEEL IS POWER!

China accounts for over 60 percent of Asian steel
production and remain the world’s largest steel producer and second largest
consumer. What made it possible? It was courtesy of TPE – with the blast furnace
technology. The four major Asian producers of steel (China, Japan, ROK and
Taipei) produce about 35 percent of the world total. Over the next 10 years,
Asia is expected to account for most of the projected growth in the world steel
consumption and production, estimated at seven percent over the current levels.
It is metallic steel that will encourage agricultural revolution in Nigeria as
was made possible in China, India, Brazil etc. where upon there were effective
mass campaigns against malnutrition and Poverty influenced by over-population.
The white man knows where we are heading to and would stop at nothing to
undermine our efforts. The administration of this country should keep vigil and
steadfastness towards “national agenda”; otherwise we can remain in this
recurring decimal of national misery amid untapped riches – tied to the apron
strings of western imperialism.

Phases in ASCL

The Decree No. 19 of 14th April, 1971 was promulgated to
give legal backing to the establishment of erstwhile National Steel Development
Authority (NSDA) that was charged with developing iron and steel production for
the country. For reason best described as mysterious, General Obasanjo went for
NSDA and dissolved it – shortly after signing on TPE for the ASCL contract. It
was the next President, Alhaji Shehu Shagari, that came to the rescue of the
project. President Shagari dropped the first cabinet Minister of Steel from the
cabinet when security report indicted the minister of obtaining bribe from the
British government, ostensibly to usurp the project from USSR. He was promptly
replaced by another NPP stalwart, who saw the project to where it is today.
Since Shagari’s ouster from office, no reasonable progress has taken place in
the steel sector. The project had reached 98 percent technical completion,
though it has now been put down to 95 percent technical completion after the
year 2000 TPE’s technical inspection following close to 20 years of abandonment!
That is referring to the first phase of the steel plant – to produce “liquid
steel and billets” for its four inbuilt rolling mills and for 22 other
privately-owned re-rolling mills spread across the country. Subsequent
Governments awarded the completion of phase 1 of ASCL thrice at the cost of $
150 million, surprisingly, each time to companies other than TPE. The money went
but no work was done! Many discerned citizens complained about dealing with
wrong hands when TPE was available who had carried the job up to 98 percent
technical completion stage, with the Soviet technology. What one is talking
about thus far is the first phase of ASCL, with a total production capacity of
1.3 million tonnes of liquid steel per year. The second phase is up to
2.6million tonnes per year in which case, the increase of 1.3 million tonnes per
year will be “flat-sheet production line”. Then, come the third phase, here, the
plant is anticipated to raise production output to 5.2 million tonnes per year;
which means redoubling the capacities of phases I & II. This is where we are
going! But, the western powers are agitating that we can’t get there because the
Russian technology is old and it is, of course, a lame excuse. The truth is that
they want us to remain a “captive market” for their steel products that will
continue to drain on our foreign exchange earnings, thereby creating
macroeconomic instability.

Per capita consumption of steel

The per capita consumption of steel is the index used to
determine the level of industrialisation of a country. The per capita
consumption of steel in Nigeria is woefully very small: 10kg, some say it is
less than that; while the world average is 130kg. Statistics show that Nigeria
is lagging behind even other African countries. with lesser endowments; like:
Zimbabwe (25kg), Egypt (42kg), Algeria (38kg) and South Africa (112kg). But
Nigeria is richly endowed with extensive deposits of metallic and nonmetallic
materials across the country, which is why confronted by this gloomy economic
outlook, the African Iron and Steel Association, AlSA, in May 2002 advised the
Nigerian government that the nation can deploy her resources to raise up her
level of per capita consumption of steel to 100kg, so as to jumpstart
industrialisation within the next 10 years, Adding that Nigeria, with a
population of over 120 million has “a very large room and huge domestic market
that can sustain such rapid growth”. The country will also save for herself a
lot of foreign exchange earnings if ASCL and DSC can come on stream, according
to AISA.

BOT solution

The Russians are those only who can take us to the
“Promised Land”. Which is why I advocated the option of “concession to the
Russian steel builders” – to complete the project (all phases), run it or
operate them for a while and transfer the investment to the government. BOT is a
worldwide investment practice that can solve Nigerian dilemma over steel. TPE
has done it before to even poorer countries to obtain steel technology through
BOT. Another viable alternative suitable for the future thus is “BOO” -build,
own and operate. Note that you don’t mix up technology know-how in a steel
enterprise because, iron making and steel making are both capital and technology
intensive businesses have met with both the federal government officials and the
Russian TPE group over BOT solution and there appeared to be a consensus among
us over the matter. Although experts cautioned us over its implementation,
stressing that it would only work the miracle with subtle political maneuver at
the high offices (e.g. bilateral arrangement), similar to late General Shehu
Yar’Adua’s overture to the officials of Kremlin, Moscow during a similar
impasses before. There was the “Election 2003” around the conner and every one
retired to reconvene after elections. The Federal Executive Council was not
reconstituted when SOLGAS was signed on unilaterally during the cabinet vacuum.
Many organs of government that are supposed to make inputs never had the
opportunity to do so. For example, it beats everyone’s imagination how, indeed,
a company that would generate 2,300MW gas powered electricity never, ever,
consulted with the management of the National Electric Power Authority (NEP A).
The authority does not know anything about “SOLGAS power plans”. It is
unfortunate for this country The so-called agreement between FGN/ASCL and SOLGAS
is heavily skewed in favour of the latter. That is why there is public out-cry
that a whole national investment worth over five billion United States of
American dollars be taken away “free of charge”(?) by Americans and their local
collaborators. Is it fair that all efforts (i.e. human, capital etc) of four
decades should go down the drains? Well posterity will judge, for the holy
Qur’an warns: “And (the unbelievers) plotted and planned, And Allah too planned,
and the best of planners is Allah”(Q.3: 54).

NIOMCO, Itakpe

The mission of the Nigerian Iron-Ore Mining Company at
Itakpe in Kogi State was to meet the essential part meant to be achieved by the
Nigerian Steel Development Authority (NSDA) prior to its abrogation in August
1979. As construction activities of ASCL began in earnest in 1980, so it became
imperative to set up NIOMCO to develop the necessary facilities that will
provide the essential raw material (i.e. iron ore) needed by the steel plants
located at Ajaokuta and also Ovwian/Aladja. It is this which gave the confidence
that the backward integration approach is an achievable target that encouraged
the Nigerian government to venture into steel business in the first place. The
raw material requirements for the successful operation of Ajaokuta Steel Company
include the following: iron-ore, limestone, dolomite, coking coal, refractory
clay, manganese ore, calcined mangesite, bauxite and lump iron-ore. Others are:
Ferromanganese, ferro-silicon, aluminium pig, standard scrap, molasses, silica
sand, sulphuric acid, solar oil, caustic soda, orthophophoric acid, high
temperature pitch, dehydrated tar, Basalt and Perlite.

Locally available raw materials

Iron ore:- At the 1.3million tonnes capacity stage of
Ajaokuta Steel Plant about 2 million tonnes of iron-ore concentrate with 63
percent Iron (Fe) content will be required annually. The lump Iron ore annual
requirement of 55,000 tonnes are to be sourced from Itakpe by NIOMCO, but there
is yet to develop that capacity building to meet both ASCL and DSC requirements.

Limestone: The annual requirement of limestone by ASP
(Phase I) is estimated at 670,000 tonnes. The Jakura limestone deposit with a
proven reserve of 75 million tonnes has been identified as useful source to ASCL.
Jakura deposit lies some 100 kilometres away from Ajaokuta plant but neither the
access road/network nor rail line to link up the site with the plant has been
developed yet.

Dolomite: Osara and Bumm deposits have estimated reserves
of 2.6million tonnes and 4.8mi1lion tones respectively; ASCL requires 265,000
tonnes of dolomite per annum for the operation of the iron-making sintering and
tar bonded dolomite refractory plants.

Refractory clays: Ajaokuta Steel Company limited requires
63,000 tonnes of refractory clay for the operation of the Alumino-silicate
refractory plant. Onibodo clay deposit in Ogun State has been earmarked as a
good source.

Magnesite: About 5,500 tonnes of burnt magnesite for the
production of special refractories in ASCL. Tsaksimta deposit in Adamawa State
has been identified as potential source for the material.

Silica sand: An estimated 16,000 tonnes of silica sand
will be required annually by Ajaokuta Steel Plant and the source have been
identified at Igbokoda, Azumini and Ijero. Other locations have been identified
as well.

Imported raw materials

1. Coking coal is required for the production of
metallurgical coke by the coke oven and by-product plant of Ajaokuta Steel
Company Limited. An estimated 1.3 million tonnes of coking coal per annum is
required from countries such as: Poland, Hungary, Australia, South Africa and
Germany. Potential local source of cokeable coal was identified at Lafia/Obi in
Nasarawa State. This is confirmed by the Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency,
Kaduna. However, further work need to be done on this deposit.

Bauxite: The local deposit of bauxite has not been
identified yet. But ASCL requires about 13,000 tonnes of bauxite every year.
Other inputs for successful operation that also need to be imported every year
are as follows: Ferro-manganese (about 9,100 tonnes ), (1,200 tonnes)
Ferro-silicon (13,000tonnes) and Perlite


In view of the large tonnage of raw materials expected
(over 4.0 million tonnes per year) the completion of Ajaokuta-Warri rail line
and dredging of the river Niger to Ajaokuta are essential to the economic
operation of the plant.

Let us get the picture very clear that Ajaokuta and
Ovwianl Aladja Steel Plants without Itakpe mining sites and others hooked up to
them make techno-economic nonsense of the entire steel enterprise. The
amalgamation of the steel network programmes for the country derives major
economic benefits from gainful employment opportunities in the sector to
reducing pressure on foreign exchange to the federal government of Nigeria.
SOLGAS is to spend $36 million to purchase billets only for use at some of the
four rolling mills within the complex. ASCL is not just another rolling mill but
an integrated steel complex capable of producing “liquid steel and billets” out
of raw iron-ores. There are some 22 other privately-owned rolling mills and most
of them are importing billets into the country, with depleting effect on our
foreign exchange earning and leaving us with a bloated labour market. The point
of emphasis here is that the sum (of money) can be expended to activate NIOMP
and other mining sites – sources of raw materials to the plant. But that “SOLGAS
agreement” is just silent about it; and my opinion is that it can not have been
an oversight because they can’t mean well for us. That is the bottom line of the
matter! I repeat again that the World Bank and IMF are all out there to truncate
Nigerian Steel process and we must not accept this situation.

Finally, we can never become industrialised without
producing steel. In the pursuance of our vision of becoming a steel producer,
Itakpe/ NIOMCO and ASCL with DSC must be integrated into one department;
possibly under the presidency. They will provide improved management control and
general efficiency in the sector as demonstrated under Shagari’s administration
wherein a ministerial misdemeanour was instantly and constantly checked. The
beauty of it all is that if ASCL liveth, Nigerian economy will boost and surpass
Japan’s. And there is no exaggeration about it. We shall get there, in sha’Allah.

JVA and FA

The Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) between FGN and a
Japanese firm, Kobe Steel Ltd, was entered into on May 31, 2002 – to provide a
Fastmelt Technology (?) for the completion of the plant-phase I. Six months
later, another agreement (Financing Agreement – F.A) was reached with SOLGAS to
finance the project between the FGN and Kobe Steel Ltd on the 29th November,
2002. In a space of another seven months (i.e. 30.06.2003) the Federal
Government signed yet another agreement with the same SOLGAS: to extinguish
earlier agreements reached and to move ahead to manage the project leaving in
the wake too many loopholes, thereby putting into serious questions our
techno-managerial ability. As this arrangement was in progress, there was on
standby TPE to stage a come back. TPE actually submitted to the ministry to
rehabilitate the plant at the cost of $300million. But TPE did not ask to be
paid in cash. It requested instead to be paid either through allocation of crude
oil liftment vide same amount for its French financiers or, a guarantee from CBN.
Remember that former USSR sat on the largest deposit of oil in the world thus
the request for oil was one borne out of their excruciating with the Nigeria’s
budget management.

Another complacency can be adduced from the agreement
signed between FGN/ASCL and SOLGAS, on 30th June, 2003, that is supposed to
contain Appendix 7 that contains the detailed list of major contractors was
completely expunged from the agreement during the signing ceremony of the
agreement. Yet, the government went ahead and signed it. Equally in the
agreement no one is sure of the duration it would take for SOLGAS to recoup its
‘investment’ – 10years or more? How much is SOLGAS investment in ASCL,
($1.0billion or $3.6billion)? Does this translate to five percent or 99 percent
equity share? As SOLGAS is calculating its profit home, what portion of it is
going to the host community, in Kogi State? Who are the shareholders of SOLGAS?
There is a reap-off somewhere sir.

Legal right of the host community

Pursuant to the profit sharing formula enunciated above
and attests to the fact that no proper consultation has taken place between FGN
and the host community on the fate of ASP vis-a.-vis their own: it is important
to explain our legal position in a clearer perspective: First of all, let it be
known that no compensation has been paid in respect of the lands acquired on
behalf of ASP and NIOMP Itakpe by FGN since inception of the projects. But I
remember vividly that the only attempt by the government to payoff the debt was
in 1990 through the government of Kwara State. That money never got to the
beneficiaries as the government of Alhaji Shaba Lafiagi misappropriated the
fund. Prince Abubakar Audu suffered but in vain to collect it. So, we still
retain our legal title to the lands. Now, we understand in clause 9.3.1
(general) that: “FGN/ ASCL shall deliver up to be deposited jointly by the
parties with a bank of good international standing, nominated by SOLGAS, the
title deeds of the lands and other assets of ASCL” . How is this permissible in
law? Secondly, one is stating without any fear of contradiction that Ebira
people; otherwise referred to as the host community of ASCL in Kogi State prefer
a steel plant (running its full course) to a power generating plant on their
land. Evidences before us go to show that in terms of industrial safety,
environmental pollution, continuity and corporate purpose and goal of the two
multinational enterprises: TPE and SOLGAS, The choice of TPE is compelling.

Yusuf wrote in from Plot 727, Panama Street, Maitama
District, A6, P.O. Box 6925, Wuse, Abuja.


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3 Responses to “Ajaokuta Steel Project And Nigeria's Industrialisation Process”

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    Address: No.5 Anzheng Road Qianshan District Anshan City Liaoning Prov. China(114011)
    Tel: 0086-412-8259388
    Fax: 0086-412-8259388

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